We will learn about the Mughal emperors of the Mughal Empire and their reign period. By the way, Timur first came to India, who is the father of Babur.
In India, it is known as the Mughal dynasty of the dynasty founded by Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur. The name ‘Mughal ‘ is derived from the word Mongal. Babur is a descendant of Taimur long from his father’s side and Genghis Khan from his mother’s side. Stanly Lenpool said that the two curses of Asia Genghis and Taimur’s blood were mixed in Babur’s arteries. Babur hated the Mughal’s way of life and sought to separate the Mongols from the Turks: Despite this, Babur and his successors are known as Mughal in the history of India.
History of the Mughal Emperors of the Mughal Empire
BABUR (1526 – 1530)
Babur in Turkish means lion. Zahiruddin Mohammed Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire in India, was indeed a lion. He was born in the year of 1483.
Invasion of India
When The Sultan of Delhi was in dire straits. Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi’s close relatives are also upset over the persecution.
At that time, Daulat Khan Lodhi, the ruler of Punjab, and Alam Khan Lodi, one of the claimants to the throne of Delhi, were invited Babur to invade India. Responding to their invitation, Babur entered Punjab with his armed force in 1526 and captured Lahore. Babur’s plan to conquer the kingdom did not go down well. For this reason, they took up arms against Babur. As a result, Babur was forced to return to Kabul.
Details of all of Babur’s battles
☆In 1525, Babur invaded India with thousands of guns, defeated Daulat Khan, captured Punjab, and proceeded to Delhi. The two sides fought in the desert of Panipat near Delhi. This battle, known as the first ‘Panipath War’, was held on April 21, 1526 AD.
The first war of Panipat was one of the most crucial wars in the history of India. In this war, Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated and killed by Babur.
☆ The battle of Babur with Rana Sangram Singh in the desert of Khanuwar on March 16, 1527 AD, was named the “Khanuwar War. ” Khanuwar war is a significant event in the history of India.
☆ After the death of Rana Sangram Singh, the princess was uniting under the leadership of Medini Rai of Chanderi fort in Gwalior. Babur defeated Medini Rai, and then he controlled chanderi fort and some other areas.
☆ Babur defeated the combined Afgan forces at the Ganges and the Gogora near Patna on May 6, 1529. In history, this battle is known as the Battle of the Gongora. He died on December 26, 1539, a year after the war, at 47.
Achievement of Babur
Babur ruled in India for only four years. He established a new dynasty in India by defeating three strong rivals in this short time. For Babur, reminiscent Turkish wrote – “Tuzuk e Babri” or “Baburnama.”
HUMAYUN (1530 – 40 & 1555 – 56)
After Babur’s death, his eldest son Humayun ascended the throne of Delhi. Humayun’s words mean lucky. But such an unfortunate Narpati is not seen in human history.
☆ Sitting on the throne, Humayun had to face many complex problems. Humayun’s Three brothers Kamran, Hindal, and Askari, occupied the throne of Delhi, as there was no specific law on inheritance among the Mughals at that time.
☆ He fought two battles against sher shah at Chausa(1539) and Kannauj (1540) and was entirely defeated by him.
SHER SHAH (1540 – 1545)
☆ Even though he was the son of a small jagirdar, only his genius, through his political prudence and bravery, Sher Shah took over the throne of Delhi. Sher Shah’s childhood name was Farid Khan. He was born in Bihar in the year of 1472 AD. His father, Hasan Khan, was a jagirdar of Sasaran in Bihar.
☆ The plot of his mother – in – law he forced for homeless and took a job under Sultan Gohar Khan Lohar of Bihar. At this time, he killed a tiger alone and got the title of Sher Khan.
☆ Not just a military league leader of the founder of an empire Sher Shah is also remembered in the history of India as a pragmatic ruler and organizer. The primary purpose of his rule was to bring about the overall welfare of the Tenants. He considered himself as the protector and guardian of the people.
Mughal Empire AKBAR (1545 – 1605)
His eldest son Akbar was born in Amarkot when Humayun, who was deposed after being defeated by Sher Shah, traveled in the Hindu desert searching for refuge (1542 AD ). After ascending the throne of Delhi in 1555, Humayun appointed the minor Akbar as the ruler of Punjab, and an experienced royal official named Bairam Khan was appointed his guardian. On the death of Humayun in the meantime, on February 14, 1556, Bairam Khan, 13 years old, Proclaimed Akbar the king of Delhi in Punjab.
☆ In the sudden death of Humayun, Himu, the Hindu General of Adil Shah, advanced towards Delhi, conquering Agra and Delhi. He declared himself an independent king and held the title of Vikramaditya.
☆ In this situation, Bairam Khan and Akbar ahead against Himu. The second battle of Panipat shattered Himu’s dream of establishing a Hindu kingdom, thwarted efforts to establish Afgan dominance, and ended three decades of Mughal Afgan conflict.
☆After ascending the throne, Akbar spent the first four years (1556-1560 AD). Bairam Khan and two more years (1560-1562) after his death (1560 AD) were under the influence of his relatives. In 1562 he took over the rule of the empire on his own.
☆ Tulsi Das (Ramcharitmanas) also lived during Akbar’s period.
After Akbar’s death, his eldest son Selim Muruddin Mohammad Jahangir ascended the throne. Sitting on the throne, he enacted some liberal laws.
Like his father Akbar, he adopted an imperialist policy and expanded the Mughal Empire.
1. Akbar included most of the territory of Rajputana in the empire but could not conquer Mewar Jahangir send several successful campaigns against the Mewar’s & finally Rana Amar Singh surrendered to the Mughal’s in 1615 AD.
2. Mughal domination was also established in Kochbihar and the districts of Sri Hutt and Kachar.
3. He also conquered Orissa and Kamarpura.
Shah Jahan (1627-1658)
After Jahangir’s death, his third son Khurram Abul Muzaffar Muhammad Shah Jahan ascended the throne with the little of King Ghazi.
☆Early in his reign, he suppressed the revolt of king Jhujar Singh of Bundelkhand and the former Subaddar Khan Jahan Lodhi of the South, at which time he had to go to war against the Portuguese.
☆ The reign of Shah Jahan was a golden age in the history of Mughal architecture. On his initiative, places and forts were built in Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Kashmir, etc. The monuments built during the regions of Akbar and Jahangir used red stone, but during the reign of Shah, Jahan was used marble everywhere. Delhi’s Lalkella,Dean e am,Dean ekhas, and Agra’s Moti Masjid,Jama Masjid,Khas Mahal.The structure of the Taj Mahal the craftsmanship and decoration. His outstanding achievement is the Taj Mahal in Agra, first built on the mausoleum set of Mumtaz Mahal.
Aurangzeb’s inauguration was completed in the year of 1659 AD. And he held the title of king Ghazi of Alamgir.
☆Aurangzeb aimed to turn India into a Muslim country.
☆He hired a class of employees called Muhtasib, whose job was to keep track of how the people lived.
Bahadur Shah I (1707)
After Bahadur Shah I became the king, the decline of the Mughal Empire started. By this time, the East India Company had entered India. After the death of Bahadur Shah in 1712, his son Jahandar Shah became the king.
Jahandar Shah (1712-1713)
Jahandar Shah is also known as a Lampat murkh.
Alamgir II (1754 – 1759)
During Alamgir II, the Marathas gradually began to take over India. In 1756, Alamgir II sought help from the French East India Company to escape from the Marathas.
Shah Alam II (1728-1806)
Shah Alam II was a timid king. It started its rule in 1803, officially under the protection of East Nida Company. Due to which the East India Company was slowly starting to take hold of India. Shah Alam II was a king whose own ministers did not even support him, due to which Ghulam Qadir broke the eyes of Shah Alam II in 1788.
Akbar Shah II (1806 – 1837)
Akbar Shah II fled after he was forced to dance by Ghulam Qadir after the defeat of Shah Alam II in 1788. But after the elimination of Ghulam Qadir by the Maratha Sardar Mahadji Sinde, Akbar Shah II became the king in 1806, whose reign lasted till 1837.
Bahadur Shah Zafar (1775 – 1862)
Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Shahak of the Mughal period. Although from 1803, the East India Company started ruling under the guise of the Mughal king, in 1857, the East India Company came out in the open and started occupying India. After the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857, the British brought down the Mughal Empire. Bahadur Shah Zafar died in 1862, and the Mughal Empire came to an end. After this, there was no king in the Mughal Empire.
From here, India was entirely under the control of the British, and a new chapter of India had begun.
The Mughal Empire Family Tree
Mughal Empire FAQ’s
Answer – Babur’s eldest Son Humayun was sick. Everyone was sure that he was going to die any moment now. And then the doctors came up with the final solution of medieval medical science – Babur, the father, must offer his own life to God in exchange for his Son Humayun’s. And so Babur takes circle Humayun’s bed three times praying and offering his own life in exchange for his Son’s.
According to Babur’s daughter Gulbadan Begum, Babur died the same day, and Humayun got healthier.
Other historians, ridden less by emotions, Say Babur grew weaker over the following weeks until he finally died on December 26, 1530, and Humayun gradually got better. The four years before this, when Babur had defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the Battle of Panipat, he had spared the life of Lodhi’s mother Dilawar Begum and allowed her to live in his royal women’s quarters.
But she poisoned him, and even though Babur did not immediately die from the poison. He drank opium to counter the poison still; over the following years. His tummy didn’t get better entirely until after four years of persistent intestinal troubles, he got weaker and weaker and died.
Recommended – Read Unseen History of Babur
Answer – From the point of view of the economy, the zamindar had an essential role in the Mughal Empire. The task of the zamindar was to collect taxes from the subjects and reach the king. The zamindars used to be an essential link between the subjects and the king. They used to work for the progress of the economy for the state.
Also Read – Mughal Emperors in Mughal Empire
Answer – In discussing the cause of the fall of the Mughal Empire, William Arvin, Smith, Sir Jadunath, and other ancient historians spoke of the empire’s greatness, Aurangozeb’s Declan policy’s weakness Mughal Empire.
Read Also – History of Mughal Empire of Mughal Emperors
भारत के किस भाग में हड़प्पा सभ्यता का विकास हुआ था ? ( Bharat ke kis bhag me Hadappa Sabhyata ka vikas hua tha ? )
Answer – भारत में लोथल , रंगपुर ( अहमदाबाद , गुजरात ) , कालीबंगा ( हनुमानगढ़ , राजस्थान ) , बनावली ( हिसार , हरियाणा ) , रोपड़ ( रूपनगर , पंजाब ) , मांडा ( जम्मू , जम्मू – कश्मीर ) राखीगढ़ी ( हिसार , हरियाणा ) और आलमगीरपुर ( मेरठ , उत्तर – प्रदेश ) में हुआ था ।
हड़प्पा सभ्यता में कच्ची ईंटो का प्रयोग कहा हुआ था ? ( Harappa mein kacchi into ka prayog kaha hua tha ? )
Answer – हड़प्पा सभ्यता में कच्ची ईंटो का प्रयोग कोटदीजी में हुआ था , जिसकी खोज धुर्य एवं फजल अहमद खान ke उत्खनन कार्य के समय 1935 ई तथा 1955 ई में सिंध ( पाकिस्तान ) में की गई ।
हड़प्पा नगर में कौन कौन सी वस्तुए अथवा साक्ष्य मिले है ? ( Hadappa Nagar me kaun kaun se vastu mili hai ? )
Answer – हड़प्पा नगर में कांस्य गाड़ी , अन्न भंडार , पारदर्शी वर्स्त्र पहने हुए एक मूर्ति , गरुड़ चित्रित मुद्रा , कांस्य दर्पण , शंख का बैल , मछुआरे का चित्र मिले है
हड़प्पा सभ्यता की खोज कब तथा किन विद्यानो के नेतृत्व में हुई ? ( Hadappa Sabhyata ki khoj kab tatha kin vidvaano ke netritva mein hui ? )
Answer – हड़प्पा संस्कृति का उदय ताम्रपाषाणिक पृष्ठभूमि में भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप के पश्च्मोत्तार भाग में हुआ । सबसे पहले 1921 ई में पाकिस्तान के हड़प्पा नमक आधुनिक स्थल से जानकारी प्राप्त होने के कारण , इसका नाम हड़प्पा सभ्यता पड़ा । 1921 ई में भारतीय विभाग के महानिदेशक जॉन मार्शल के निर्देशन में रायबहादुर दयाराम साहनी ने हड़प्पा की एवं राखलावास बनर्जी के 1922 ई में मोहनजोदड़ो की खोदाई करवाई । परिपक़्व हड़प्पा संस्कृति का केंद्र पंजाब और सिंध में , मुख्यतः सिंधु घाटी में पड़ता है । यही से इसका विस्तार दक्षिण और पूर्व की और हुआ ।
Answer – Hadappa Sabhyata ( हड़प्पा सभ्यता ) के प्रमुख चार भगौलिक स्थल है –
हड़प्पा सभ्यता में गुजरात में हाथी के साक्ष्य कहा मिले ? ( Gujarat ke Hadappa Sabhyata mai Haati ke sakshya kaha mile ? )
Answer – सन 1957 ई में लोथल में जो की अहमदाबाद ( गुजरात ) में , रंगनाथ राव के द्वारा उत्खनन मे वृताकार तथा चौकोर , अग्नवेदिका , चावल और बाजरे पर दोमुहे राक्षस का अंकन , फारस की मुहर , घोड़े की मृण्मूर्ति , गोड़ीबड़ा , तीन गुग्मित समाधियाँ , पूर्ण हाथी दाँत , चालक लोमड़ी का चिन्ह आदि प्राप्त हुए है ।
Answer – सबसे पहले 1921 ई में पाकिस्तान के हड़प्पा नमक आधुनिक स्थल से जानकारी प्राप्त होने के कारण , इसका नाम हड़प्पा सभ्यता पड़ा । 1921 ई में भारतीय विभाग के महानिदेशक जॉन मार्शल के निर्देशन में रायबहादुर दयाराम साहनी ने हड़प्पा की एवं राखलावास बनर्जी के 1922 ई में मोहनजोदड़ो की खोदाई करवाई ।
Answer – हड़प्पा सभ्यता का प्रचलित नाम सिंधु घाटी की सभ्यता है । सिंधु , पाकिस्तान में स्थित एक प्रमुख नदी का नाम है , जो पाकिस्तान में स्थित हड़प्पा नमक स्थान पर है ।
Answer – 1921 ई में भारतीय विभाग के महानिदेशक जॉन मार्शल के निर्देशन में रायबहादुर दयाराम साहनी ने हड़प्पा की एवं राखलावास बनर्जी के 1922 ई में मोहनजोदड़ो की खोदाई करवाई ।
Nav Pashan Kal ke log Mare hue log ki dead body ka kya karte the ? ( नवपाषाण काल में लोग मरे हुए लोगो के शव का क्या करते थे ? )
Answer – बुर्जहोम , जिसका अर्थ होता है , भूर्ज वृक्ष का स्थान । यह श्रीनगर से 16 किलोमीटर उत्तर – पश्चिम में स्थित नवपाषणिक स्थल है , जहाँ युग्मत शवदाह के प्रमाण मिले है । Nav Pashan Kal में बुर्जहोम के लोग हड्डी खुरदरे , धूसर मृदभांडों का प्रयोग करते थे । यहाँ कब्रों में पालतू कुत्ते भी अपने मालिकों के शवों के साथ दफनाए जाते थे ।
नवपाषाण काल का स्थान चिरांद किस राज्य में है ? ( Nav Pashan Kal ka sthan Chirand kis Rajya me h? )
Answer – नव पाषाण काल का चिरांद बिहार राज्य में स्थित है । भारत में सिर्फ चिरांद ही एक ऐसा स्थान है , जहाँ हड्डी के अनेक उपकरण पाए गए है । यह स्थान गंगा के उत्तरी किनारे पर पटना से 40 किलोमीटर पश्चिम में स्थित है ।
Anaswer – Navpashan yug ( नवपाषाण युग ) के निवासी सबसे पुराने कृषक समुदाय थे । ये लोग स्थायी घर बनाकर रहने लगे । मिटटी के बर्तन सर्वप्रथम इसी काल में बने थे ।
नव पाषाण काल में उत्तर प्रदेश के किस पुरास्थल से धान की खेती के साक्ष्य मिले है ? ( Uttar Pradesh ke kis Nav Pashan Kal ki Purasthal se dhaan ki kheti ke kshaya mile hai ? )
इलाहबाद में स्थित कोल्डिहवा एकमात्र ऐसा नवपषिदिक पुरास्थल है , जहाँ से चावल या धान की खेती के प्राचीनतम साक्ष्य प्राप्त हुए है ।
नवपाषाण युग ( Navpashan Yug ) की एक ऐसी बस्ती मिली है , जिसका समय लगभग 7000 ईसा पूर्व बताया जाता है । यह बस्ती पाकिस्तान में स्थित बलूचिस्तान प्रान्त के मेहरगढ़ में है । मेहड़गढ़ में कृषि के प्राचीनतम साक्ष्य मिले है ।
Uttar Pradesh me Nav Pashan Kal ke Sakshya kaha se prapt hye h? ( उत्तर प्रदेश में नव पाषाण काल के साक्ष्य कहा से प्राप्त हुए है ? )
Answer – सर्वप्रथम 1860 ई में लॉ मासुरिये ने इस काल के प्रथम प्रस्तर उपकरण के साक्ष्य को उत्तर प्रदेश की टोंस नदी घाटी से प्राप्त किया था ।
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